The Wonders of the Brain

By Riya Patel

The Brain

As most of us know, the human brain is the main command center for the nervous system. It receives signals from sensory organs all over the body and outputs information to the muscles to do what they’re supposed to. Doctors and surgeons might say that the brain is one of the main and most complex organs in the human body. People may not even realize how much power your brain really holds. It controls our thoughts, memory, speech and even movement.

The Anatomy Of The Brain

The three main regions are the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem. Starting with the Cerebrum, which is responsible for your intelligence, learning and judgement,but also your speech, memory, sense of hearing, vision, taste, smell, and skeletal muscle movements. The Cerebrum is also paired with the left and right hemispheres superior parts of the brain. It also includes more than half of the brain’s mass. Corpus Callosum is a band of white matter that connects the 2 hemispheres together. The surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci). The deep groove is known as a fissure. Your Cerebellum is responsible for your balance coordination and posture. Also, it provides involuntary coordination of body movements. Lastly, your brain stem is in charge of changes in your heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, vomiting, swallowing and digestion. It’s attached to the spinal cord and has 3 parts to it: midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata.

Lobes Of The Brain

There are many lobes to the Cerebrum, such as your Frontal, Parietal, Occipital and Temporal lobes, which all do different things. Starting with the Frontal Lobe, it is in charge of motor control, problem solving and speech production. The Parietal Lobe is in charge of your touch perception, body orientation and sensory discrimination. Next, the Occipital Lobe is responsible for your sight, visual reception and visual interpretation. Finally, the Temporal Lobe is responsible for auditory processing, otherwise known as your hearing, language comprehension, memory and information retreival. There are also specialised areas of the Cerebrum. The Somatic sensory area receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors. The Primary motor area sends impulses to skeletal muscles. The Broca’s area involves control over our ability to speak. Lastly, Wernicke’s area is responsible for language comprehension. Other parts of the brain include the Diencephalon, which sits on top of the brain stem, enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres. It’s made up of the Thalamus (director) and the Hypothalamus, which regulates temp, hunger, thirst, sleep, water balance.

The Limbic System

The Limbic System is located beneath the cerebral cortex and it includes the Thalamus, the Hypothalamus, the Amygdala and the Hippocampus. It’s a system of the brain that’s involved in your behavior and emotional responses. It helps the body respond to intense emotions of fear and anger that trigger and activate the fight or flight response. The Thalamus is basically your relay station. Your Hypothalamus is your emotions and what you feel. Also your Amygdala controls your fears, anxiety and interpreting facial expressions. Lastly, your Hippocampus is in charge of your memory.
Ultimately, the brain is arguably the most important organ in the human body. It controls and coordinates actions and reactions, allows us to think and feel, and enables us to have memories and feelings — everything that makes us human.

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